Introduction & Greetings

They were only there to help, not hurt. But their help turned out to be hurt for them. Paul and his companions enter Philippi to preach the gospel and win souls. And souls they won until some did not approve when the help Paul offered affected their pocketbook. Accusations came followed by arrest (Acts 16.19). As if that were not enough, they were dragged into the center of town, stripped of their clothing, and beaten with rods (16.22). Many blows are inflicted (16.23). Once finished, they are handed over to the jailer who puts them in the prison within the prison, shackling their feet (16.24).

Time passes. Those events become an unforgettable memory. A letter is written and Paul recalls “every remembrance…from the first day” of that place. What does he say? What does he remember? How does that shape his worldview? How does that shape his view of the Philippians? Where does he begin? What kind of words does he use to describe those memories? Is he angry? Is there angst? Or is he merely apathetic to the whole thing?

He says, “I thank my God in all my remembrance of you, always in every prayer of mine for you all making my prayer with joy” (Phil 1.3-4). Joy? Joy?!? But the accusations and incarceration! But the beating and belittling! But the dungeon and the shackles! Paul…Joy!? Notice too it is joy coupled with thanksgiving to God. But how?

The book of Philippians is a key to unlocking the secret of facing any and all circumstances with joy (cf. 4.11-12). What Paul is communicating in these 104 verses is that God gives/empowers servants (slaves) joy/to rejoice regardless of circumstances.

Philippians 1:1–2 (ESV)

1Paul and Timothy, servants of Christ Jesus, To all the saints in Christ Jesus who are at Philippi, with the overseers and deacons:

Paul: Paul does not use his official title of “apostle” as he does elsewhere (Romans, 1 & 2 Corinthians, et al). His style of writing to the Macedonian churches (Philippi & Thessalonica) illustrates the difference of relation to them—deep personal affection & no formal introduction.

And Timothy: Paul’s “son in the faith” who is associated with Paul in every epistle in which some other person is mentioned in the address except 1 Corinthians (Sosthenes). He could have been Paul amanuensis (like Tertius in Romans 16.22) but it is highly unlikely that he was a co-author (Paul speaks in the first person singular throughout the letter). He was, though, Paul’s companion and co-worker in the evangelistic work to the non-Jews (Gentiles).

Servants of Christ Jesus: Perhaps here we find the “official” title he wishes for his readers to know him by. Lit. slaves or Christ. They were those who belonged to Christ who was their Master (Gk. kurios & despotes) as well as the Father—they were those “bought with a price.” The slave did not have his won will but adopted the will of His master. So too Paul and Timothy have abandoned their will for the will of God and Christ. Further, regardless of how they differed—in age, in spiritual maturity, in circumstances of conversion, in official activity (apostle and evangelist respectively) – in Christ they are equals. Both are slaves, both have the same ministry, calling, and Master.

To all the saints in Christ Jesus: “all the saints” – not just those who may have contributed to the “gift” sent to Paul; no group is specially identified (though some divisions might be present); no person is singled out (though two women were disagreeable). All alike are loved by Paul and all of them love him. Further, they were all “in Christ Jesus” – a position attained by being immersed into Him (see Romans 6.3).

Note: Paul and Timothy are “slaves of Christ Jesus” and the Philippians are identified as “saints in Christ Jesus.” Both of these terms identify Christians: the former points to the work assigned and the latter points to the spiritual blessings that are ours. Work and holiness identify us.

At Philippi: see Introductory Material

With [the] overseers and deacons: no definite article(s). Bishops (Gk episkopois) were equivalent to elders (Gk presbuteros) in the first century church (see Acts 20.17, 28). Their responsibility was nourishing and protecting the “flock of God.” They were drawn from the full number of the church. Deacons (Gk diakonios) were responsible for certain welfare duties in the church and possibly certain administrative tasks. One writer sees a possible hendiadys reading “serving-shepherds.”  In no other letter does Paul greet specifically the elders and deacons. Why does he do it that in this letter? Martin suggests (42) that they were instrumental in gathering the funds of the “gift” that was sent by way of Epaphroditus.

Note: Paul follows the conventional format of letters in his day—(1) identification of the sender(s), (2) identification of the recipient(s), (3) greetings.

2Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.  

Grace to you: Grace is God’s unmerited favor. We don’t earn it or deserve it. Paul invokes God’s grace upon this community (pl. “you”).

And peace: not merely the absence of war but the subtle understanding that God is in control of everything. Peace must come from the “God of peace “ (4.9). Grace brings peace.

Note: grace is the Greek form of greeting and peace is the Hebrew form of greeting. Taken together they are Paul’s customary form of greeting (see Rom 1.7; 1 Cor 1.3; 2 Cor 1.2).

From God our Father: God is the Author and Initiator of salvation. As the Father He sends the Son. By sending the Son for human redemption He manifests His grace and desire for peace.

And the Lord Jesus Christ: The Son is our Lord Jesus Christ. Elsewhere He is called “the grace of God” (Titus 2.14) and by His sacrifice He brings peace between man and God.

Grace and peace are upon the church of Christ because God the Father sent the Lord Jesus Christ into the world to accomplish the salvation of mankind. This greeting is rich with theology.

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