The Crucifixion, pt.1

Recently, a televangelist told his audience of thousands (possibly millions across the country and around the world) that Jesus never told His disciples he was going to die on a cross, i.e. by crucifixion. What a monstrous display of biblical illiteracy! And this from a guy who has his own television broadcast seen world wide!! This particular pastor (Fred Price Jr., son of Apostle Frederick K. C. Price, pastors of the Crenshaw Christian Center) even had the audacity to claim he had researched this and would not say this if he had not researched it. My advise to this ignorant pastor: read your Bible.

For if you read your Bible, even just a cursory reading of the gospel accounts will tell you otherwise. On multiple occasions Jesus has pointed His disciples to even to the mode of death, crucifixion (See Matt 16.21, 24; 20.19; Luke 9.22-23; 24.6-7; cf. Mark 8.31, 34; 9.31; 10.33-34; Luke 18.32-33, et al). Further, even if Jesus was silent about the specifics of His death, God was not silent and prophecied centuries before crucifixion was invented in the mind of man as a torturous mode of death and nearly a millenium before Jesus ever walked the earth that Messiah would die by crucifixion (see Psalm 22.16). Again, to all the televangelists: read your Bible.

No, Jesus has been predicting exactly what will happen to Him in Jerusalem by the Jewish and Roman authorities: He would be crucified. Luke records this dreadful deed in 23.26-43. First, in verses 26-31, we run into several people on the way to the crucifixion site.

The Man

We meet a man named Simon of Cyrene, a town in North Africa. This man is a long way from home, no doubt one of the Passover pilgrims in Jerusalem for the Feast. There is precious little we know about this man and what happened to him once he finished carrying the cross to the site. Mark tells us he was father to two sons, “Alexander and Rufus” (Mark 15.21). Most scholars believe that Mark wrote his gospel, aided by the apostle Peter (an eyewitness) and the Holy Spirit, to or for the church in Rome. Hence, Mark includes this specific detail about Simon of Cyrene being the father of Alexander and Rufus as if to say, “If you have any questions, just ask these men who’s dad was there and actually carried the cross.” It is interesting that in Romans 16.13 Paul greets a man in the Roman church named Rufus and his mother. Is this the same Rufus? It is possible, but any attempts to draw a hard line connecting them is purely speculation. Nevertheless, if nothing else, it would seem that Simon’s sons went on to be leaders in the early church. Were they influenced by their father, himself impacted by what he experienced when he carried the cross of a condemned man named Jesus?

Simon was coming in from the country. It seems that Jerusalem, crowded with Jews from all over the Empire, yet again has no room in the inn for anyone, Simon of Cyrene included. Hence, he forced to lodge outside the city in a nearby village and “commutes” as it were to Jerusalem for the Feast. Perhaps on this occasion he was on his way to the Temple or to the Cyrenian synagogue, which Jerusalem had. Cyrene was an important city with a large number of Jewish residents. So when they had to come from Cyrene to Jerusalem for the various feasts, they had a place to gather.

Simon is “seized” by the Romans and “compelled” to carry the cross of Christ. Jesus has been weakened by the last 24 hours and perhaps especially the scourging He has endured has taken its toll. So the soldiers lay hold of Simon had force him to go “the extra mile” as it were. The cross is laid on him and he follows Jesus as Jesus walks. Scholars reading from historians of antiquity say that the condemned often had a white sign hung about their necks which read their charges and what they had been condemned of. Perhaps Jesus has a similar sign and this is what is affixed later to the cross.

The Maidens

Luke is careful to note that this whole episode was not done in secret where no one could see; in fact, when Jesus is before Pilate there are substantial crowds of people (23.4, 13) present. Here again we see there is “a great multitue of the people” who are following along this deadly processional to Golgotha. But Luke, as he has done throughout this gospel account (1.39-52; 2.36-38; 7.11-15, 37-50; 8.1-3; 10.38-42; 11.27; 13.11-16), highlights some women who are walking along with Jesus. These women are crying out, wailing loudly, beating their breasts or smiting themselves as they go. Perhaps He sees the faces of some of the women He has known during His ministry: Mary and Martha, Joanna, Mary Magdalene. Did He see His mother’s face in the crowd? She was present at the cross (John 19.25-27).

Nevertheless, Jesus sees these women and turns to them, a dramatic gesture in the midst of chaos, and imparts some teaching about what is to come. First, He says stop weeping for Him. What? But Jesus is one His way to death. True, but Jesus knows something even worse is yet to come. Stop weeping for Jesus. Second, start weeping for yourselves and your children. When I was little if I cried over something I wanted but did not get, my dad would tell me to “dry it up or I will give you something to cry about!” Jesus does something similar; He tells them exactly what to cry about. Third, He explains why: There are some bad, terrible, horrible things come down Jerusalem’s way. In fact, it will be a blessing to have been barren and not had children when this time comes. People will be calling for mountains and hills to fall and cover them from the terror and horror of what is coming. “They” in v.29-30 seems to be the people who have called for the death of Jesus – the religious leaders and other various people of Jerusalem, the crowds. And all the judgment coming upon them would spill over onto all of Jerusalem. Hence, these “Daughters of Jerusalem” who belong to Jerusalem proper do have something to weep, lament, and beat their breasts over: the coming destruction of Jerusalem, heaven’s exclamation point on the grand scheme of redemption.

Finally, there is this cryptic word from Jesus in v.31: “For if they do these when the wood is green, what will happen when it is dry?” What’s this all about? It seems to be a common proverb used as an explanation of what Jesus has just said. Various interpretations abound. Leon Morris in his commentary on Luke offers several which all seem plausible. Morris writes: “If the innocent Jesus suffered thus, what will the fate of the guilty Jews? If the Romans treat thus One whom they admit to be innocent, what will they do to the guilty? If the Jews treat like this Jesus who had come to bring salvation, what will be their punishment for destroying him? If the Jews behave like this before their wickedness reaches its consummation, what will they be like when it does? If grief is aroursed by the present events, what will it be when the subsequent disaster strikes?” Farrar adds: “If they act thus to me, the Innocent and the Holy, what shall be the fate of these, the guilty and false.” Inasmuch as Jesus addressed these Jewish women and it was the Jewish who so vehemently sought his death, this proverb from Jesus seems targeted for the Jews. The “wood” when he spoke this proverb is “green,” that is hard to burn. But its drying. Even as Jesus marches to Golgotha, the wood is drying. And when it is dry, what will happen? We, looking back into history, know exactly what happen when Jerusalem’s time in AD 70.

Jesus on Trial, pt.1

I have never been accused of something so that I had to go to court and appear before a judge. I’ve never served on a jury in court. In fact, the closest thing I’ve come is when I was summoned for jury duty near Christmas one year and was not waiting more than 20 minutes when they announced we could go home, have a merry Christmas. As we turn our attention to Luke 23, Jesus, who has been convicted by the Sanhedrin for blasphemy, is brought to trial before Pilate (v.1-5). Who is Pilate? He is Pontius Pilate, a Roman kinght and procurator of Judea (one who collects revenue) who held this office from 28-36 AD. In 36 AD he was removed from office in disgrace, the Emperor entirely unhappy with Pilate’s rule.

Jesus was convicted of blasphemy, however, blasphemy is not a charge serious enough to warrant death under Roman law. Hence, the Jews bring Jesus to Pilate with three different charges. They call Jesus “this man,” further pointing to the contempt with which they view Jesus. They claim:

1. Jesus is misleading (or perverting) our (the Jews) nation. In other words, they charge Jesus with leading the whole nation of Israel from the kind of behavior the Romans demand under pax romano. The idea is that Jesus has been inciting the people to riot and rise up against the Roman government.

2. Jesus is forbidding the Jews to give tribute to Caesar. Tribute is taxes. So Pilate, being the revenue collector of Judea, would have heard this charge. However, as Adam Clarke puts it, “These were the falsest slanders that could be invented.” Indeed, just days before in the life of Jesus He had confounded perhaps the same chief priests and scribes when He, looking upon a denarius, had proclaimed “Render to Caesar the things that are Caesar’s” (Luke 20.25).  Since the money had Caesar’s face on it, it must His. Further, in the life of Jesus, as recorded by Matthew a former tax-collector, we see Jesus paying the temple tax (Matt 17.24-27). Albeit, taxes to Caesar may be another thing, the fact stands that Jesus paid His taxes and taught others to do the same both in word and deed.

3. Jesus is calling Himself Christ the king. Couched in this, though tangled a bit, is the blasphemy charge the Sanhedrin has convicted Jesus of in 22.66-71. But they have cunningly worded it so as to make sound as though Jesus is an insurrectionist. While the charge may be true, it is false in the way they meant it. Jesus Himself says elsewhere that He is king of a kingdom “not of this world” (John 18.36). The Sanhedrin, though, wants to and does set Jesus up as a rival of Caesar’s earthly throne. Pilate would understand that is their meaning when they call Christ “king.”

Pilate privately questions Jesus about His kingship. For more on this, you can read John’s account of the lengthy discussion between Jesus and Pilate (John 18.33-38). Luke only records one question Pilate asks Jesus: “Are you the King of the Jews?” Jesus answers, “You have said so.” Again, as seen in 22.70, this is not Jesus giving what some term “reluctant assent.” Jesus is not saying, “Well, that’s what you say or think” or “Those are your words not mine.” This was a rabbinic way of affirming what someone has spoken. This is not a “reluctant assent” but a “real affirmative.” It is in essence a “Yes” answer. And in John’s extended account, we see exactly what Jesus means in it.

Pilate comes out of this private meeting with Jesus and announces for everyone to hear (“crowds,” v.4), “I find no guilt in this man.” Pilate is not dummy; he can see through the malice and hatred of the Jews that there is no capital charge that would warrant Jesus’ presence before him. Indeed, the word used for “guilt” or “cause” is a word which means the author or one responsible for a particular thing. Pilate knows Jesus is not the cause of this ruckus but the Sanhedrin have orchestrated this whole ordeal.

But the Sanhedrin is relentless and presses the issue, adding strength and vehemence to it. They keep after Pilate about Jesus stirring up the people all over Judea, “from Galilee even.” Galilee seems to strike a note with Pilate and sees a possible way of escape. He asks if Jesus is from Galilee which He is. Therefore, he is under Herod Antipas’s jurisdiction and must be heard by him. Perhaps to get these Jews out of his hair or to pay some kind of tribute to Herod, Pilate dismisses the group to go see Herod, who is in Jerusalem at this time.

Jesus at World’s End, pt.4

As we approach Luke 21.29-38, we see the final words of Jesus concerning His coming in judgment on Jerusalem. As we have seen in part 1, part 2, and part 3, Jesus is warning his disciples about the impending doom yet to come upon the Jews for their continued rebellion toward God. He concludes His warning with a parable, a favorite tool for teaching of Jesus.

A Fig Tree

The fig tree is a plant indigenous to Asia Minor and the Eastern Mediterranean region. Its blooms appear before the leaves do in the spring. Jesus uses this example from the creation in order to drive his point home: Just as certain as summer follows spring, the season when the fig tree puts forth its leaves, so also you may be certain that “when you see these things taking place” (all the things in v.10-28) you can know the fall of Jerusalem and the end of the Jewish world is right at the door. Jesus, in v.31, says the kingdom of God is near. That is, the rule and reign of God, His sovereignty over nations and peoples to bring them up and tear them down. What you see in the destruction of Jerusalem is an exercise of God’s sovereignty in human history.

Jesus reiterates His point in case anyone missed it: this thing is going to happen soon; so soon that the present generation (those people alive in the first century, some of them standing in front of Him) would not die until it had taken place (v.32). Hence, those expositors and commentators who try to shove this passage (and it’s parallel passages) into the future do so erroneously. Jesus is not talking about something millenia in the future; this is something right at the door for the first century disciples. If this has not yet been fulfilled, either Jesus lied (since that generation passed away without this prophecy fulfilled) or we should still have 2000 year old people walking around still waiting for the fulfillment. Neither of these is a reality nor possible – hence, Jesus’ prophecy was fulfilled just as he described in the destruction of Jerusalem in AD 70. Indeed, Jesus makes this very point in v.33 when in essence he says “No word of mine will ever pass away unfulfilled.”  

A Final Tip

Jesus wraps up this discourse with a final warning and exhortation to His disciples. “Watch yourselves” (v.34) and “stay awake” (v.36). First, watch yourselves, especially in regards to their hearts. Something big and bad is coming down the pike…and now is not the time to mess with their Christian walk. Jesus mentions some very specific activities to avoid. “Dissipation” which has to do with drinking (alcohol) and the unrestraint behavior that usually accompanies that activity. How many people know the results and consequences of excessive alcohol consumption? Judgment and morality fly out the window and that is what Jesus is addressing. Avoid this. Next, “drunkeness” which is alcoholic intoxication. Indeed, there is absolutely nothing with abstinence from alcohol. And finally, the “cares of this life” are those things which divide our alligence to Christ and God. They pull us from being worshippers to being worriers. Jesus’ word to His disciples is guard yourself from these things. If you do not, “that day” (the day of destruction reserved for Jerusalem) will come upon them “suddenly like a trap.” I believe the imagry is self-evident.

Jesus further explains why they should watch themselves in verse 35. Many will use this verse in order to shove this whole context into the future. Indeed, it can present some difficulty. “For it will come upon all who dwell on the face of the whole earth.” Well, this would pretty well point to the scope of this judgment being universal, right? Not necessarily when you consider that the world for “earth” can (and in this context should) be translated “land.” Hence, all those who dwell in the land of Judea will suffer this judgment of God. Young’s Literal Translation provides this translation and Adam Clarke in his commentary makes mention of this point.

The next warning is stay awake at all times. In other words, keep yours eyes open and be on watch. What should a watchful disciple be doing in anticipation of this coming day? Pray. For what? Strength to escape all the horrible, terrible things that are coming which Jesus has just predicted. Indeed, it will get very bad. But also, pray that they would be able to stand before the Son of Man. The coming judgment is upon wicked Jerusalem. They will not be able to stand in judgment. But the disciple ought to be able to stand blameless at the coming of the Son of Man. They would then be free from the coming calamity.

One day He’s coming back. We often talk about the “second coming of Christ;” perhaps it is better called the “final coming of Christ.” One day he come back for the final time for final judgment. Ought we to listen to the words of the Master? He predicted physically judgment to be poured out in human history and told His disciples how they can prepare themselves for that day. Much more should we prepare for the Day when Christ will proclaim spiritual judgment upon all men and women. Ought also to stay awake and watch ourselves lest we fall into dissipation, drunkeness, and/or the cares of life? Our alligence must be wholeheartedly to the Son of Man if we would stand in final judgment.

The Faithful Teacher

Luke gives us a glimpse into the life of Jesus in v.37-38. Every day Jesus is teaching in the temple. We have seen Him sere before (see Luke 19.47). No doubt His message is still the same: “Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand” (Matt 4.17).  He is still teaching during the day, but at night He’s sleeping on the mountains, the Mount of Olives. Mountains appear to be a special place for Jesus. They seemed to be His place of prayer and renewal (see Luke 6.12; 9.28). What’s Jesus every night before he turns in? Probably praying. His time is drawing ever closer and he needs the strength to carry out the mission. We’ve just seen Him warn His disciples to pray for strength; certainly the teacher is modelling for his students what this looks like. But you know where to find Jesus the next morning. Early in the morning He’s back at it, in the temple teaching all the people who came to hear Him.

Jesus at World’s End, pt.3

I continue to marvel at the fantastic intrpretations men have come up with concerning this passage. Albeit, I can understand their efforts; this is a text which is somewhat confusing since it is prophetic and therefore Jesus borrows from the language of the prophets of the Old Testament to convey this prophecy. But if we understand that concept, that this is highly symbolic prophetic language even in the vein of the prophets of old, and keep that ever before us, it will help in understanding this passage.

We now hit the meat of this text where Jesus specifically mentions the fearful fate of Jerusalem. It will be a very ugly end, an horrific sight which is recorded for us in history. Nevertheless, Jesus explains why it must be so: “these are days of vengence” (v.22) brought about by the “God of vengence” (Psalm 94.1). Israel, the Jews are filling to the brim the cup of God’s wrath (see Isa 51.17; Rev 16.19) and the execution of God’s Son will fill it yet fuller. Finally, in AD 70 (just decades away from when Jesus speaks this), God’s wrath will spill over into the land and God will punish them using the Romans (in this context, the “nations” or “Gentiles” of v.24).

The Approaching Disaster

Jesus begins to enumerate the signs that would signal to his disciples that the end of the Jewish age is right at the door. First, Jerusalem would be surrounded by armies. These are the armies of Roman led by Titus. They would encircle Jerusalem and lay seige to it beginning in AD 68. It would take two years, but eventually Jerusalem will fall. Hence, that seems to be why Jesus is very specific: you see the armies of Rome and that means “desolation has come near.” It is not yet fully upon them until the end of the seige.

Jesus’ disciples are warned, then, that Jerusalem is going to be desolated, laid to waste by foreign armies. What should they do? Jesus gives guidance to them in v.21-23. If the are in Judea, run to the hills, the mountains. If they’re in the city, flee the city. And if they’re outside the city, stay out. Again, these are warnings to the disciples of Jesus and warnings for the early church. Would they listen? Indeed, not a single Christian lost their life during the Roman sack of Jerusalem. Eusebius, an early church historian, records that Christians fled to the city of Pella south of Galilee. Here is validation of the words of Jesus.

All this is happening because it is the will of God. Jesus says as much in v.22: God is pouring out his vengeance on His people for their continued unfaithfulness to Him. Where and whom has predicted this particular destruction of Jerusalem? Of course, all prophecy goes back to the mind of God, but these were uttered by Daniel in Daniel 9.26-27. I believe it is safe to make this conclusion (that Daniel is speaking of this event) because Matthew borrows the very language of that passage when in Matthew 24 he details the coming event (Matthew 24 is a parallel passage of Luke 21). Also, Barnes in his commentary cites Zechariah 14.1-2 as speaking to this time. Again, all this to say that this was according to the will of God as he serves His unfaithful people what they deserve for their evil deeds.

We catch a glimpse of the heart of Jesus as He laments for the pregnant woman and the nursing infants during this time. I wonder if he knew…I wonder if he knew just how bad it was going to get. Josephus records for us just severe the famine was going to be during this seige. In War of the Jews he details how people, young and old, father and mother, child were all scrambling for the last bits of food. Mothers snatched from the lips of their children even the tiniest morsels. Old men were beaten if they clung to any food (War 5.10.3). Josephus also records a horrific tale of a mother named Mary, a prominent woman who was daily taken advantage of by the soldiers in Jerusalem; any food she had they came and stole. One day, she had had enough and took her child, killed it, roasted it and ate half before the soldiers came. They smelled the stench and came in, hungry for anything. She uncovered the rest of her meal and these soldiers, in shock and sickness, left this woman alone (War 6.3.4). Again, I wonder if Jesus knew…

This was going to be a horror like never before. News of this would be all over the earth causing distress as God poured forth His fierce anger on “this people.” Verse 24, in the briefest of statements, sums up the carnage: many would be killed, many taken captive to “all nations,” and Jerusalem would no longer be the Jews possession. Josephus tallies the final number of the slaughtered at around 1.1 million people and another 97,000 taken captive. The nations would walk on or over. In other words, Jerusalem, the holy city, would be made common. But isn’t that the message to the Jews – God is telling them in this act, “I don’t live here anymore.” Indeed, in the church age God makes his dwelling with men (cf. Rev 21.3). Its a massive message to Jewish Christians and to Jews that this city, this temple is no longer the sole place of the presence of God. Isn’t that how this conversation got started? The disciples pointed out the temple’s beauty and Jesus uses that say, “There’s coming a time when this will no longer be important, in fact God is going to hand it over to the nations so they can walk all over it to try to get that point across.”

Scholars want to spend so much time on the last part of v.24: “until the time of the Gentiles (or nations) are fulfilled” (ESV). They say that points to 1900 years in the future when the Jews become a nation again and when Jerusalem is theirs again. Ugh. Actually, it seems like Jesus is pointing to the fact that even though the nations (Romans) would walk all over Jerusalem, eventually their time will run out too. They have a purpose to accomplish, a very dubious purpose, but once it is fulfilled, God will punish them, too. History bears this out: Rome loses steam and eventually collapses (it limps along until the 1400s in the East but it is effectively over by the 400s) and the Muslims take over Jerusalem…then back and forth with the Crusades…then the Turks…then the British…my point is that scholars prove too much with their explanations.

The next sign is in v.25 which presents a unique difficulty. Some want to take the first part of this verse and say its literal but the second part of the verse is figurative (of the Romans). Others shove it into the future as yet to happen (that comes from the faulty interpretation of v.24 mentioned above.) However, v.24 runs right into v.25 and seems to be Jesus borrowing from the language of the prophets to communicate a sobering message to his followers. I think verses 25-27 are highly figurative (prophetic) language used by Jesus to say, “Something terrible is about to happen.” In Matthew 24.29, more detail is given about the moon and sun will not give their light and stars will fall out the sky. This is the language of the prophets (see Joel 2.10, 31; 3.15 – these passages are said to be fulfilled in Acts 2.16ff. Peter, an inspired apostle, says that what Joel prophecied was taking place in what he and the rest of the twelve were doing).

The whole earth will be in turmoil because of the sea and roaring waves. The sea in propehcy usually refers to nations, so in this case it would seem the Romans are causing the people of earth (the Jewish world?) to be in a state of total calamity and worry. Fear and foreboding enter the hearts of the Jewish people because of what is happening to the Jewish world. Truly, what must have the Jewish heart thought of all this! All three gospels record about the shaking of the heavens. In other words, this is going to rock the world of the Jew. There will be nothing solid, nothing firm for them to grab hold of. All this to mark the coming of the Son of Man. This is a term found in the Old Testament in Daniel 7.13-14 who is given the same attributes and authority as the Ancient of Days. Folks, this is Jesus, the glorified Christ who has taken his position with the Father on the throne, coming in judgment on the Jews. He had power, indeed, the same power as Jehovah God. He has great glory, indeed, the glory he suspended so he could dwell among us. And he is coming on the clouds. In prophecy, clouds are the war wagons of God (see Deut 33.26; Psa 104.3; Isa 19.1, and cf. Psa 18.7-12; 97.2). When we think of clouds, we think nice little puffs of water vapor; but when used in prophecy and poetry concerning the judgment of God, they are a terrible sight. Think dark clouds, black clouds, ready to burst with rain. Here is Jehovah God and the Son of Man when they come in judgment on men. It is a powerful sight and a glorious sight.

The Appearing Deliverer

Jesus tells his disciples that when they see all this (these signs signalling the coming of the Son of Man in judgment upon Jerusalem), stand tall.  Straighten up and raise your heads. What’s implied is that they were bowed down, both body and head. And certainly with the sorrow and turmoil, heartache and heartbreak they would be down cast. But Jesus says there will be a time to rejoice as the deliverer, the redeemer has come. They can now look up “because your redemption is drawing near.” What does that mean?

First, redemption is a buying back. It carries the meaning of rescue by ransom; that is, a price is paid and a slave is set free. So it is deliverance (of some kind) that is drawing near. Second, redemption from what? Most want to shove this into the future and say it is the second coming of Jesus – that will be the full realization of redemption. I believe this is contextually dishonest. Jesus has been talking about a very specfic event (the coming destruction of Jerusalem) to a very specific audience (his disciples, the Twelve). To rip this statement from its given context and somehow apply it to a yet future event is an injustice to the text. No, Jesus says, “your redemption is drawing near” speaking specifically to those Twelve disciples standing before Him. Jesus is specfically talking about the deliverance of the Twelve (indeed, those who would also believe based on them, i.e. the Church) from the bitter and constant hostility of the Jews. Previous to AD 70, Christianity’s spread is somewhat slow, hindered by the constant persecution from the Jews. But following AD 70, Christianity faces next to no resistance from the Jewish crowd and growth is far more rapid. Therefore, Jesus’ words to his disciples are words to bolster their faith as well. Although the end is coming for the Jewish order, the deliverance of the Christian order is ready to be right at the door.

Jesus at World’s End, pt.2

Once more, I reiterate what has already been established in part 1: Jesus is addressing His disciples concerning events and destruction that was going to be coming in their lifetime. This entire context (Luke 21.5-26) is pointing to AD 70 and the destruction of Jerusalem. Unforutnately, scholars and theologians have tried to make this text say something it does not say. In fact, one writer says that Jesus “intermingles” discourse about the destruction of Jerusalem and the tribulation and second coming, as though Jesus is so scatter brained He cannot entertain one thought for too long. Jesus is addressing one question from his disciples (v.4) concering the coming end of the Jewish world.

This is an important point: the Jewish world (as they knew) was nigh unto coming to a close. Their quasi-theocracy, their entire system for worship, indeed, their very world was about to come crashing down around them when Rome came in conquest. And Jesus uses very specific langauge (prophetic and apocalyptic langauge) which the Jewish mind would be familiar with in order to drive His point home to a Jewish audience. So we continue to examine Jesus’ warnings to His disciples concerning the coming calamity in Jerusalem.

Conflict Nationally

In v.10, Jesus talks about conflict among nations. Indeed, this plays out in history just prior to the destruction of Jerusalem. The Jews (nationally) revolt against their rulers, the Romans (a nation). So you have the assumed kingdom of God (although by the late 60’s of the first century the kingdom of God was now in the hearts and minds of men, see Col 1.13-14) and THE kingdom of the world, Rome. It will be Rome who rises and squashes this revolt with an iron fist. The devestation is horrific and Jerusalem suffers a seige from Rome. There is starvation and bloodshed in the city, and then the Romans breach Jerusalem.

Conflict Geographically

In v.11, Jesus talks about earthquakes and famine, pestilence and signs from heaven. What’s that all about? Some interpret these signs as figurative, apocalyptic in nature. It is simply Jesus’ way of saying, “Your world is coming to an end.” Others point to history. Josephus, in his The Wars of the Jews, records accounts of earthquakes. In fact, in 1.19.3, there is a very great earthquake which swallows many cattle and 30,000 men. Adam Clarke in his commentary on Matthew states about earthquakes that there was “one at Crete in the reign of Claudius, one at Smyrna, Miletus, Chios, Samos.” Also in Josephus are famines that constantly came upon the Jews. In fact, so severe was the famine in Jerusalem that the Jews actually invented terrible methods of torture to discover the location of food. And don’t forget the famine predicted by Agabus (Acts 11.28).

Because of these famines, pestilence also followed. A general term for frightening things that were to come is used by Jesus. Indeed, how terrifying would all these things. But then great signs in the sky. This is an interesting one. But diving into history we find Josephus, that great historian, in his WOTJ explains manifold signs (and terrors) which took place before the rebellion of the Jews (see 6.5.3). All the predictions of our Lord Jesus, then, are finding their fulfillment in human history.

Conflict Locally

Next Jesus address conflict which the disciples will experience from their own people. He explains that they will be handed over to authorities for persecution before all the tumult and turmoil just described. Before conflict nationally and geographically, the disciples will experience conflict locally. Indeed, this is detailed and documented in the book of Acts. Luke records those events of intense persecution, first from Saul of Tarsus, then the persecution from Rome (directed both at Jews and Christians), and also the persecution of the church from Jews, esp. that persecution endured by the apostle Paul (formerly Saul). Indeed, in this history we see the fulfillment of Jesus’ words here as Christians are delivered to synagogues and prisons, brought before kings and govenors all for Jesus’ sake (see Acts 8.1-4; 12.1-4; 14.19-22; 16.19-24; et al concerning the early church and persecution).

How should a Christian view what would appear to be negative circumstances? Jesus tells us in v.13: this is an opportunity to bear witness. Indeed, here before Jesus are the eyewitnesses themselves – the Twelve who had been with Jesus. Whether in prison or before kings, view it as an open door for the gospel. Jesus further explains they have nothing to worry about once in that particular situation. In v.14-15, he promises to give them the message, a mouth and wisdom, which no one will be able to speak against. “Don’t meditate before hand” – in other words there is no need to sit down and write up your speech. Indeed, there is no need. Jesus promises his apostles elsewhere (John 14.26; 15.26; 16.13) that he would send them the Holy Spirit who would guide them into all knowledge concerning salvation. Of course, this explains why no one can contradict it; it is from God, the source of all knowledge. The enemy may not like, may not accept, may try to kill them, may hate them for it, but they will not be able to withstand or contradict this wisdom and understanding.

The disciple must be warned, though, that though he is given the words he needs in the time he needs it, it does not mean that the road will be easy. In v.16, Jesus tells His disciples whom it will be that betrays them into the hands of the authorities: parents, brothers, relatives, friends. Notice the pattern. Those people that were closest to the disciples, even these would betray them and turn them in. Jesus has already addressed this idea previously in Luke (12.49-53). Families will be divided and that because of Christ. Tragically, even at the hands of their own countrymen, the disicples will even be killed for Christ’s sake. Jesus punctuates this with v.17: the disciples will be hated by all because of Jesus.

Comfort Internally

In Jesus’ own words, He details just how bad it is going to get. Conflict from every side. Persecution from everywhere. Ah, but the disciple has a comforting word from His Lord. However, this promise seems contradictory to what Jesus just said in v.16: how can Jesus promise that not a hair on their heads will perish when he just explicated to them that they will be killed? Here Jesus is pointing them back to who is in control in the midst of what appears to chaos: God. God is over all, through all and in all. He is in absolute sovereign control of the lives of this small band of brothers. This is a call to faithfulness to the sovereign God even through the most difficult of circumstances. “By your endurance you will gain your lives.” Although you may lose you life in this world, you gain your life in eternity (see 9.24). What is important is not what this world can do to the body, but what God can do to the soul. Truly, that was the message of the apostles. Don’t worry about anything but be prayerfully expectant of His final return.

Jesus Wept

It has been a long journey. It began in Luke 9.51 when Jesus set his face to go to Jerusalem. And now finally, Jesus crests one final hill and the holy city is in full view. To be sure, glimpses of it have been seen in the preceding passage (v.37, he was coming down the mount of Olives) and also Jesus has gone up each year for different feasts (see John 7.1ff), but this time it’s different. This time there’s…


We see the pain of our Lord in v.41: “…he wept over [the city]…” As Jerusalem comes into full view, Jesus’ heart is broken. Previously in Luke, Jesus lamented over Jerusalem’s rejection of the prophets and pointed to his coming rejection when he will arrive at Jerusalem. But now his heart is broken because this city, it people have something very bad coming, even, the judgment of God is coming upon them. And this is not quiet weeping…not the Greek word is that of loud wailing and crying out with audible noice. Here is the Master’s heart, broken over the unfaithfulness of his people.


Out of the pain is a prediction. I believe this is a slight play on words which Jesus takes advantage when he talks about the “the things that make for peace.” Jerusalem means “city of peace.” Yet, only hostility awaits them. The Jews have shut their eyes and ears to the message of peace found in the gospel. And because their is open hostility toward God, the know not peace. In addition, there is coming a day when the Romans will come against Jerusalem. V.42 mentions what is on the horizon. The Roman army with come and beseige Jerusalem. This involved surrounding the city with pointed stakes to ensure no one got in or out. All the way around will Jerusalem be surrounded. Once the Romans have seiged Jerusalem and breached her walls, then they will level the city.

In another place and speaking of the temple in Jerusalem, Jesus says, “there will not be left here one stone upon another that will not be thrown down” (Matt 24.2, ESV). Indeed, the entire city will be utterly destroyed. Josephus documents this tragic event in Jewish history in his “The Wars of the Jews” (see “The Wars of the Jews” 6.8.1, 4 concerning the surrounding of Jerusalem with ramps [fulfilling v.43] and 6.9.2 for the slaying that takes place when Jerusalem falls [fulfillment of v.44]). In “The Wars of the Jews,” the scene of carnage is depicted as the Roman soldiers (who are already tired of all the killing they have endured during the entire seige of Jerusalem) “slew the aged and the infirm.” The rest of the people are taken into captivity. Truly, the devastation of Jerusalem was total, both city and people.

And what is to blame for this grand tragedy which will take place in AD 70? Jesus says, “you did not know the time of your visitation.” In a word – ignorance. For stubborn rebellion and refusing to listen to God’s prophets and God’s Son, Jerusalem will face the coming wrath of God when he “visits” them in AD 70. We, in the religious realm, often speak of the “coming of the Lord” as though it is a one time event. On the contrary, Scriptures often speak of the coming of the Lord and you can read about the many times God has come in judgment (Psa 22.19, on enemies; Psa 50.3; Isa 13.9, on Babylon; Isa 19.1, against Egypt; Isa 26.21, inhabitants of the earth (not final judgment); Jer. 4.13, against his people Judah and specifically Jerusalem; et al.)

I believe it is Jesus’ knowledge of His people’s stubbornness and refusal of the grace of God which causes him to weep and wail over Jerusalem. In addition, Jesus himself is a Jew and knows the true significance of this city: it is the center of Judaism and worship to Jehovah. I believe his heart is broken over the coming desvastation and destruction that the city and the people will endure for their continued ignorance. Truly, even today, Jesus knows the coming wrath of God for those who continue in open rebellion to God and His commands. Only in Christ do we have the blessed assurance that there is no condemnation (Romans 8.1) and it is only by baptism that we enter into Christ (Romans 6.3). I urge all to make peace with God (Romans 5.1, 9; 6.3-5; Acts 2.38, 42).

The King is Coming

It has been a long journey with Jesus through the gospel of Luke, but we are nearing the finish line: Jerusalem. Luke 19.28 connects us to the previous context which is Zacchaeus’ house. He just spoke to them the parable of the ten minas as an indictment of the Jews. But now it is time to move on. “He went on ahead, going up to Jerusalem.” On his way he has some other cities to visit which his route will take him. So he leaves Jericho (19.1) and moves onto Bethphage (“house of (unripened) figs”) and Bethany (“house of affliction” or “house of dates”). As he nears these towns, he stops on mount Olivet. The Mount of Olives is a ridge of hills that runs north-to-south east of Jerusalem. It will be here that he comes to pray Thursday night and here he will be arrested. But right now, it is here that he sends two of the disciples (the Twelve) to fetch his ride.

The Command from Jesus

Jesus gives these two very specific orders for securing his vehicle. First, they are to go into the village in front of them. I believe this is Bethany Jesus is speaking about. One would go through Bethany, then Bethphage (the legal property of Jerusalem and in closer proximity than Bethany) before coming to Jerusalem. So these disciples enter Bethany and will straightway find a colt (or a young donkey) that has never been ridden. This is the animal that will carry the Savior of the world into Jerusalem. But this has greater significance…

God, through the prophet Zechariah, has already recorded this as history centuries before the gospel writers put pen to parchment. Zechariah 9.9: “Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion! Shout aloud, O daughter of Jerusalem! behold, your king is coming to you; righteous and having salvation is he, humble and mounted on a donkey, on a colt, the foal of a donkey.” Matthew, who, it would seem, wrote his gospel for Jews, quotes this passage. Hence, prophecy fulfilled. When Jesus makes this request, he is seeking to fulfill prophetic mandate from Jehovah concerning his entrance into Jerusalem. Jesus concludes his request by saying if anyone asks why these disciples are doing what they are doing the disciples are to say, “The Lord has need of it.” The Lord…the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew Yahweh (see Septuagint). This is who needs the colt.

Armed with their orders, the disciples obey. And the events which Jesus foresaw took place, including the questioning from the owners. Imagine their surprise when two men begin to take their colt. Imagine their even greater surprise when they find out “The Lord” needs it. These disciples bring the colt to Jesus, but before he mounts the beast, they place their cloaks on the colt. Here is an improvisation. Having no regal trappings for the colt, the very cloaks off their backs will suffice as the regal mount. Moreover, the disciples, as Jesus rode, would cast their remaining cloaks on the ground before the Lord as he rode along (about 2 miles from Bethany to Jerusalem) as a sign of repect.

The Celebration for Jesus

“As he was drawing near” – that is drawing near to Jerusalem. So we traverse the path from Bethany and to Bethphage. Now we are coming down off the mount…and a large of disciples has formed. And at the sight of the King coming to Zion their hearts erupt in rejoicing and loud cries. They have seen mighty deeds, miracles and now they are overwhelmed and in a loud voice cry out, “Blessed is the King who comes in the name of the Lord! Peace in heaven and glory in the highest!” Here we come nearly full circle from where we started with Luke. At the birth of the King is angelic proclamation of “Glory to God in the highest” and peace on earth (2.14). Now the people proclaim much the same as Jesus makes his way to Jerusalem.

But not every will enter into the celebration. Indeed, the “older son” so to speak is standing outside in the field, refusing to come. The Pharisees, some of them being in the crowd, in a way, rebuke Jesus. “Teacher, rebuke your disciples.” In other words, make ’em shut up. The Pharisees hear this and it down-right heresy. The people are saying Jesus is the King. And every good Israelite knows that Israel is a theocracy, God being their king. So, Jesus, stop this at once.

If Jesus is not God, then this would be a blasphemous thing the people are doing. But as Jesus points out, should the creatures refuse to praise the King, the creation would cry out. The idea of the rocks or stones crying out is that of screaming, shouting, even possibly implying that it would be so loud it would hurt the ears. Either way, creature or creation, the Creator must be honored!

O Jerusalem, Jerusalem

The preacher is the modern day prophet of God. He does not deal with the foretelling of the future but with the forthtelling of the word of God. He is under obligation to preach, as he best understands, the word of God to the people. Consequently, he sometimes runs into opposition. I know a preacher (we’ll call him Dave) who was preaching at a congregation of the Lord’s people. One Sunday he spoke concerning the sovereignty of God. That week, one of the brothers who had been in the audience asked if he could preach the following Sunday. He was permitted. That following Sunday he got up in the pulpit and said, “Brother Dave has preached false doctrine and I intend to correct that error this morning” and proceded to preach a sermon in diametric opposition to what Dave had preached that last week.

The next week for Dave was spent in tears and prayers as he wrestled with what to do. But his understanding of Scripture and the nature of God and his sovereignty could not be shaken. He determined, though he may lose his job, that he could not remain silent. The next Sunday he was a “fiery breathing dragon” in the pulpit as he preached, once more, concerning the sovereignty of God. That was one of the last sermons he preached for that congregation. Coincidently, the brother who spoke against the sovereignty eventually to the understanding that Dave had, albeit some years later.

In Luke 13.31-35, Jesus is confronted with the temptation to quit, to throw in the towel and stop preaching. He has “resolutely set his face toward Jerusalem” (Luke 9.51) and he knows what is awaiting him there, namely, certain death (see Luke 9.22). And it is the natural inclination of humans when faced with certain death to go into self-preservation mode and flee or fight. But Jesus overrides this mechanism and continues to proceed toward Jerusalem (Luke 13.22). He knows he must continue his journey toward Jerusalem if mankind is to ever have any chance at salvation from sin.

The Determination of Jesus

These verses (v.31-35) are in conjunction with the preceeding section of Scripture (v.22-30, commented on here) since Luke unites them with the words “Just at that time…” (NASB). Some Pharisees come to Jesus following his mention of the narrow door and urge him to flee. “Go away,” they tell him, “leave.” Of all the suggestions and comments made by the Pharisees to Jesus, this seems to be the wisest. It is only natural: your life is in danger; flee that it might be preserved. Now what was the intent behind this exhortation? Some suggest that these may have been Pharisees who came as friends to Jesus and sincerely warn him to flee. Perhaps. Others say that this was a cohort who hated Jesus and wanted him gone from their lives. I think this is more accurate. Jesus has been nothing but a pain in the neck for the Pharisees ever since he came on the scene (see Luke 5.21, 30, 33; 6.1-2; 11.15, cf. Matt 12.24; 11.38; 12.1). I think it is safe to say they want him gone so they can once more force their religious rule over the people again. Further, their hatred for Jesus grew everyday and with each new confounding situation and teaching Jesus presented. This would boil into full blown rage and madness and they would seek his death themselves (Luke 20.47-48; 22.2). Well, here is an opportunity to get rid of Jesus without having to resort to murder: Herod wants him dead.

Now the question arises whether or not these Pharisees were even from Herod. In reality, Herod wanted to see Jesus (see 9.9) not kill him. And when he finally has Jesus before him, he does try to kill him or sentence him to death, they only mock him, dress him up, and send him back to Pilate. Here is what seems to be happening: the Pharisees are lying about Herod in order to try to scare Jesus off and out of the country so that they can once again establish themselves as Israel’s religious leaders, salvaging what little dignity remained. And so, pitifully, they try to coerse Jesus out of the region with a lie.

And it seems Jesus knew it was a lie. He says, “go tell that fox…” It is as if Jesus is saying, “If you really are from Herod, go back and give him this message.” How embarrasing! The lie did not work. And now they have a mesage for Herod that is undeliverable for they are false messengers. In reality, Jesus is giving a message for the true “foxes” standing before him. He is not going anywhere. He is going to keep on doing what he has been doing: healing and driving demons. Here is a glimpse of the Lord’s determination. He has a clear goal before him. Literally, Jesus says at the end of v.32: “until I shall be perfected (or ended).” The interpretation can either mean the end of his ministry of healing and teaching or the end of his life. Perhaps both are suitable since both happen at roughly the same time. He “must” (v.33) continue his work “for night is coming when no man can work.” Indeed, Jesus has the cross in mind when he finishes verse 33: “no prophet can die outside of Jerusalem.” Jesus’ goal, his end is clear: his life will come to an end in Jerusalem when he receives the death sentence from his enemies. Though his fate is ever before him, Jesus is unwavering in following this through to the end.

The Lamentation of Jesus

The mention of Jerusalem causes great anguish within the heart of our Lord, so much so that he breaks forth in lament over that city. There is first for their rejection of the prophets in the past. This parallels with Jesus’ indictment of them in 11.47-51. There is not a prophet, Jesus says, whom they have not persecuted or killed. They are a stiff-necked people who refuse to listen to the word of God. But this was in accordance with the will of God. In 11.49, God in his wisdom determines to send prophets whom he knows they will persecute. Hence, their refusal to hear and heed the word of the Lord makes them responsible for the blood they shed, from Abel to Zechariah.

Let’s dive a little deeper into this killing of the prophets the Jews did. The Old Testament is rife with examples of this very thing Jesus is talking. The clearest example is Zechariah (whom Jesus mentions in 11.51). His murder can be read in 2 Chron 24.20-22 where he is stoned to death. Again and again the record tells of countless and nameless others who suffered death at the hands of the stubborn and rebellous Jews (2 Chron 36.15-16; Neh 9.26; Jer 2.30; Lam 4.13). So many sent; so many persecuted and killed. A little known martyred prophet is a man by the name of Uriah. He was sent by God to Israel but they plotted to kill him. He fled to Egypt, certain they would not find him. But King Jehoiakim sent a cohort of men to find and bring him back Israel. They did and killed him with the sword (Jer 26.20-24). The senseless violence of the Jews over the phophets sent by God is clear. And the heart of Jesus breaks over their stubborn rebellion to the will and word of God.

But Jesus also laments over their rejection of him. The tender picture is painted of Jesus as the mother hen seeking to cover with her wing her chicks. This is Jesus and the nation of Israel. Our Lord is willing to gather them under his wing; that is his desire. But they reject him and the safety he brings. Again, the Lord’s heart breaks over this rejection of the will of God for their lives. There is deep pain in this short verse. It will not be long until he is able to behold the city with his own eyes. But it is yet another picture of great pain and sorrow over the city. It overwhelms him and he weeps (Luke 19.41). The apostle Paul identifies with this great pain over the nation of Israel in Romans 9.3 where he says he would be cursed (under the anathema of God) and cut off from Christ if it mean salvation for the Jew. Sadly, our Lord has already suffered in such a manner, but the Jews refused and rejected him. He was cursed for them and cut off from God for them, but that was still not enough.

So with the pain still in his chest over Israel, he speaks a prophecy in v.35. Jesus says their house is currently desolate (present tense). Literally, Jesus says that their house is “forsaken,” meaning God no longer lives there. And how could he? They had turned religion into a system of legalistic works and the sacrificial system was perverted into money making machine for the temple. It was corrupt and God no longer lived their. All that remains is judgment from God. This would take place some 40 years later in AD 70 when Israel will be left with no king, no priesthood, no temple and no sacrifices. What is left? Nothing but the acknowledgment of Christ as the true Messiah at his second coming when every knee shall bow and every tongue confess he is Lord. Then, no matter how unwilling they may be, they will have to acknowledge and bless the one who has come in the name of the Lord.